## Table of Contents

Google Sheets, a cloud-based spreadsheet program offered by Google, is a powerful tool for data analysis, organization, and visualization. It offers a wide range of formulas that can be used to manipulate data, perform calculations, and automate tasks. This glossary article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of some of the most commonly used Google Sheet formulas, their syntax, and their applications.

Understanding Google Sheet formulas can significantly enhance your productivity and efficiency when working with data. Whether you’re a student, a professional, or someone who enjoys working with data, mastering these formulas can help you make the most out of Google Sheets. Let’s dive into the world of Google Sheet formulas.

## Basic Arithmetic Formulas

Google Sheets supports basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations can be performed using the ‘+’ (addition), ‘-‘ (subtraction), ‘*’ (multiplication), and ‘/’ (division) operators. For example, the formula ‘=A1+A2’ will add the values in cells A1 and A2.

It’s important to remember that Google Sheets follows the order of operations (parentheses, exponents, multiplication and division, addition and subtraction) when evaluating formulas. Therefore, it’s recommended to use parentheses to ensure that operations are performed in the desired order.

### Addition and Subtraction

The ‘+’ and ‘-‘ operators can be used to perform addition and subtraction operations, respectively. For example, the formula ‘=A1+A2-A3’ will add the values in cells A1 and A2, and then subtract the value in cell A3 from the result.

Google Sheets also provides the SUM function to add up a range of cells. For example, the formula ‘=SUM(A1:A10)’ will add up the values in cells A1 through A10. The SUM function can also be used with multiple ranges and individual cells, such as ‘=SUM(A1:A10, C1:C10, E1)’.

### Multiplication and Division

The ‘*’ and ‘/’ operators can be used to perform multiplication and division operations, respectively. For example, the formula ‘=A1*A2/A3’ will multiply the values in cells A1 and A2, and then divide the result by the value in cell A3.

Google Sheets also provides the PRODUCT function to multiply a range of cells. For example, the formula ‘=PRODUCT(A1:A10)’ will multiply the values in cells A1 through A10. Like the SUM function, the PRODUCT function can also be used with multiple ranges and individual cells.

## Statistical Formulas

Google Sheets offers a variety of statistical formulas that can be used to analyze data. These formulas can calculate measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode), measures of dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation), and other statistical values.

Understanding these formulas can help you gain insights from your data, identify trends and patterns, and make informed decisions. Let’s explore some of the most commonly used statistical formulas in Google Sheets.

### Mean, Median, and Mode

The AVERAGE function can be used to calculate the mean (average) of a range of cells. For example, the formula ‘=AVERAGE(A1:A10)’ will calculate the mean of the values in cells A1 through A10.

The MEDIAN function can be used to calculate the median (middle value) of a range of cells. For example, the formula ‘=MEDIAN(A1:A10)’ will calculate the median of the values in cells A1 through A10.

The MODE function can be used to calculate the mode (most frequently occurring value) of a range of cells. For example, the formula ‘=MODE(A1:A10)’ will calculate the mode of the values in cells A1 through A10.

### Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation

The MAX and MIN functions can be used to calculate the maximum and minimum values in a range of cells, respectively. The range (difference between the maximum and minimum values) can then be calculated by subtracting the minimum value from the maximum value. For example, the formula ‘=MAX(A1:A10)-MIN(A1:A10)’ will calculate the range of the values in cells A1 through A10.

The VAR and STDEV functions can be used to calculate the variance and standard deviation of a range of cells, respectively. For example, the formulas ‘=VAR(A1:A10)’ and ‘=STDEV(A1:A10)’ will calculate the variance and standard deviation of the values in cells A1 through A10, respectively.

## Text Formulas

Google Sheets provides a set of text formulas that can be used to manipulate and analyze text data. These formulas can perform operations such as concatenation, extraction, replacement, and conversion.

Understanding these formulas can help you work with text data more effectively, automate text processing tasks, and enhance your data analysis capabilities. Let’s delve into some of the most commonly used text formulas in Google Sheets.

### Concatenation and Extraction

The ‘&’ operator or the CONCATENATE function can be used to join two or more text strings together. For example, the formula ‘=”Hello, “&A1’ will join the text string “Hello, ” with the value in cell A1.

The LEFT, RIGHT, and MID functions can be used to extract a specific number of characters from a text string. For example, the formula ‘=LEFT(A1, 5)’ will extract the first 5 characters from the value in cell A1.

### Replacement and Conversion

The SUBSTITUTE function can be used to replace specific characters or text strings in a cell. For example, the formula ‘=SUBSTITUTE(A1, “old”, “new”)’ will replace all occurrences of “old” with “new” in the value in cell A1.

The UPPER, LOWER, and PROPER functions can be used to convert text to uppercase, lowercase, and proper case (first letter of each word capitalized), respectively. For example, the formula ‘=UPPER(A1)’ will convert the value in cell A1 to uppercase.

## Date and Time Formulas

Google Sheets offers a variety of date and time formulas that can be used to manipulate and analyze date and time data. These formulas can perform operations such as addition and subtraction of dates, calculation of the difference between two dates, and extraction of specific components of a date or time.

Mastering these formulas can help you manage and analyze date and time data more effectively, automate date and time calculations, and enhance your data analysis capabilities. Let’s explore some of the most commonly used date and time formulas in Google Sheets.

### Addition and Subtraction of Dates

The ‘+’ and ‘-‘ operators can be used to add and subtract days from a date, respectively. For example, the formula ‘=A1+7’ will add 7 days to the date in cell A1.

The DATE function can be used to create a date by specifying the year, month, and day. For example, the formula ‘=DATE(2020, 12, 31)’ will create the date December 31, 2020.

### Difference Between Two Dates and Extraction of Date Components

The DATEDIF function can be used to calculate the difference between two dates in terms of years, months, or days. For example, the formula ‘=DATEDIF(A1, B1, “D”)’ will calculate the number of days between the dates in cells A1 and B1.

The YEAR, MONTH, and DAY functions can be used to extract the year, month, and day from a date, respectively. For example, the formula ‘=YEAR(A1)’ will extract the year from the date in cell A1.

## Lookup and Reference Formulas

Google Sheets provides a set of lookup and reference formulas that can be used to find and retrieve data from a range of cells. These formulas include VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, INDEX, and MATCH.

Understanding these formulas can help you find and retrieve data more efficiently, automate data lookup tasks, and enhance your data analysis capabilities. Let’s delve into some of the most commonly used lookup and reference formulas in Google Sheets.

### VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP

The VLOOKUP function can be used to find a value in the first column of a range and return a value in the same row from a specified column. For example, the formula ‘=VLOOKUP(“Apple”, A1:B10, 2, FALSE)’ will find “Apple” in the first column of the range A1:B10 and return the value in the same row from the second column.

The HLOOKUP function works similarly to VLOOKUP, but it looks for a value in the first row of a range and returns a value in the same column from a specified row.

### INDEX and MATCH

The INDEX function can be used to return a value from a specific row and column in a range. For example, the formula ‘=INDEX(A1:B10, 5, 2)’ will return the value in the fifth row and second column of the range A1:B10.

The MATCH function can be used to find the position of a value in a range. For example, the formula ‘=MATCH(“Apple”, A1:A10, 0)’ will find the position of “Apple” in the range A1:A10.

## Logical Formulas

Google Sheets offers a variety of logical formulas that can be used to perform logical tests and return values based on the results of these tests. These formulas include IF, AND, OR, NOT, and IFERROR.

Mastering these formulas can help you automate decision-making processes, handle errors more effectively, and enhance your data analysis capabilities. Let’s explore some of the most commonly used logical formulas in Google Sheets.

### IF, AND, and OR

The IF function can be used to perform a logical test and return one value if the test is true, and another value if the test is false. For example, the formula ‘=IF(A1>10, “Yes”, “No”)’ will return “Yes” if the value in cell A1 is greater than 10, and “No” otherwise.

The AND function can be used to perform multiple logical tests and return TRUE if all the tests are true, and FALSE otherwise. The OR function works similarly, but it returns TRUE if at least one of the tests is true.

### NOT and IFERROR

The NOT function can be used to reverse the result of a logical test. For example, the formula ‘=NOT(A1>10)’ will return TRUE if the value in cell A1 is not greater than 10, and FALSE otherwise.

The IFERROR function can be used to return a custom value if a formula results in an error, and the result of the formula otherwise. For example, the formula ‘=IFERROR(A1/B1, “Error”)’ will return “Error” if the division of the values in cells A1 and B1 results in an error, and the result of the division otherwise.

## Conclusion

Google Sheets offers a wide range of formulas that can be used to manipulate and analyze data, automate tasks, and enhance productivity. Understanding these formulas can help you make the most out of Google Sheets and take your data analysis skills to the next level.

Remember, practice is key when it comes to mastering Google Sheet formulas. Don’t hesitate to experiment with these formulas and explore their potential. Happy data crunching!